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Alloy Steel vs Stainless Steel: A Comparative Guide

Author: Yaozu Deng
Published on: 2023-07-07

“Choosing between alloy steel and stainless steel hinges on application requirements. If you’re looking for high strength and durability under stress, alloy steel is your ally. For projects demanding resistance to corrosion and a sleek finish, stainless steel effortlessly shines through.”

Steel is a category of metals renowned for its strength, durability, and versatility. Yet, within this broad category, there are several types. Alloy Steel vs. stainless Steel is worth comparing. Alloy steel offers increased strength and durability, whereas stainless steel is known for its chromium content and provides excellent corrosion resistance. 

This article will examine these differences in detail, comparing the properties, uses, and advantages.


What is Steel? A Brief Overview

Steel is a versatile and robust material extensively used in numerous sectors, including construction, automotive, and manufacturing. At its core, steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. However, the term ‘steel’ encompasses a wide range of materials that can be altered by changing the ratio of carbon and by adding other elements.


CNC machined Steel part 

Here is a quick classification of some common types of steel:

  • Carbon Steel: Contains iron and carbon with minor traces of other elements. Based on the carbon content, it is categorized into low, medium, and high-carbon steel.
  • Alloy Steel: Involves adding different elements like manganese, chromium, nickel, and others to impart specific properties, such as improved strength or enhanced resistance to corrosion.
  • Stainless Steel: Distinguished by its corrosion-resistant characteristics, primarily due to the high chromium content.
  • Tool Steel: Its high carbon content and additives like tungsten, molybdenum, and cobalt make it hard and heat resistant, suitable for cutting and drilling tools.

Understanding the types of steel provides a solid foundation for exploring alloy and stainless steel’s specific characteristics and uses.

Related: Understanding Steel Properties: A Comprehensive Guide


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An Introduction to Alloy Steel

Alloy steel is a remarkably versatile and resilient type of steel, distinguished by adding one or more alloying elements to the iron-carbon mix. These additions aim to enhance the steel’s properties, making it stronger, more durable, and more resistant to wear, or more resistant to corrosion, even in Alloy steel vs. carbon steel.

Alloy steel sheets

The alloying elements, including manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, and boron, have distinct impacts on the steel’s properties:

  • Manganese: Enhances strength and hardness; aids in the steel’s manufacturing process.
  • Nickel: Adds toughness; provides resistance to heat and corrosion.
  • Chromium: Increases hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance; adds a shiny appearance.
  • Molybdenum: Increases strength and heat resistance; enhances corrosion resistance.
  • Vanadium: Promotes a fine grain structure, enhancing strength and toughness.
  • Silicon: Used as a deoxidizer in the steel-making process; it improves strength.
  • Boron: Greatly increases hardenability when used in small amounts.

These alloying elements can be combined in various quantities to produce alloy steels with diverse properties, making them suitable for various applications. Next, these additives are added in different proportions ( called grades). For example, there are some specific Steel alloy grades for CNC machining like 1018, 1025, and 4140.


What is Stainless Steel?

Stainless steel stands out among other steel types for its exceptional resistance to rust and corrosion, owed to its chromium content. A minimum of 10.5% chromium content gives stainless steel its signature resistance by creating a thin, protective layer of chromium oxide on its surface. This layer is highly adhesive, preventing oxygen and moisture from reaching the steel underneath. Moreover, it is self-repairing—if the layer gets damaged, the chromium in the steel reacts with the atmosphere to recreate the layer.

Stainless steel parts 

Stainless steel can be further categorized into five classes:

  1. Austenitic Stainless Steel: Non-magnetic stainless steel with high levels of chromium and nickel and low levels of carbon.
  2. Ferritic Stainless Steel: Magnetic stainless steel with high chromium, molybdenum, and low carbon levels.
  3. Martensitic Stainless Steel: High carbon steel can be heat treated to boost its hardness.
  4. Duplex Stainless Steel: A mix of austenitic and ferritic stainless steel.
  5. Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steel: Heat-treatable steel that can reach high levels of hardness.

The resistive properties of stainless steel make it a favorite in the kitchenware, medical, construction, and automotive industries.

Related: Stainless Steel Sheet Metal Fabrication: Process and Applications  


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Physical & Mechanical Properties: Alloy Steel vs Stainless Steel

Alloy steel and stainless steel are both high-strength materials used across various on-demand manufacturing projects. However, they have distinct properties that suit different applications. Alloy steel is primarily known for its strength and durability. These elements allow engineers to tweak the steel’s properties, including hardness, ductility, and resistance to wear and corrosion. Furthermore, its ability to withstand high pressures and temperatures makes it ideal for the automotive and construction industries.

Table: Properties of Alloy and Stainless Steel 

Property Alloy Steel (Typical Grade) Stainless Steel (304)
Tensile Strength (MPa) 620 – 850 505 – 860
Yield Strength (MPa) 415 – 550 215 – 275
Elongation (%) 10 – 15 40 – 50
Hardness (HB) 200 – 250 123 – 200
Thermal Conductivity (W/mK) 25.3 – 60.5 14.9 – 16.2
Density (g/cm³) 7.8 – 8.1 7.9 – 8


On the other hand, stainless steel is renowned for its exceptional corrosion resistance due to its significant chromium content (at least 10.5%), which forms a passive layer of chromium oxide on the surface. This characteristic makes it the preferred choice in aggressive environments, such as chemical processing or marine applications. Besides its resistance to rust and staining, stainless steel also offers a clean and bright surface finish, making it popular in household appliances, medical devices, and food processing equipment.


Alloy Steel VS Stainless Steel: A Detailed Comparison

When comparing alloy steel and stainless steel, various factors come into play, such as corrosion resistance, strength, cost, and application.

Some parts made of 316 stainless steel

Stainless steel applications 

  • Corrosion Resistance: Stainless steel reigns supreme due to its chromium content. The chromium oxide layer renders it resistant to rust and corrosion, making it suitable for environments exposed to water, chemicals, or atmospheric conditions. In contrast, alloy steel, though some types can resist rust better than carbon steel, generally falls short compared to stainless steel.
  • Strength: While both materials are strong and durable, alloy steel often has an edge when it comes to strength, particularly when elements such as manganese, silicon, or nickel are added. However, the ultimate strength depends on the specific type of alloy steel versus the specific type of stainless steel being compared.
  • Cost: Generally, stainless steel tends to be more expensive due to its chromium content and the processes required to manufacture it. Alloy steel, though varying in price based on the type and amounts of elements used, is usually less expensive.
  • Applications: Given their unique properties, the two materials can be used in different applications. Stainless steel is commonly used in kitchenware, medical instruments, and any situation where corrosion resistance is crucial. On the other hand, alloy steel’s increased strength and durability make it fit for structural applications, pipelines, auto parts, and machine components.


Impact of Manufacturing Processes on Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel

The manufacturing processes can significantly impact the properties of both alloy steel and stainless steel. For example, heat treatment can alter the hardness, toughness, ductility, and resistance to wear and corrosion of these materials.

Alloy steel CNC machining

  • Heat Treatment of Alloy Steel: In alloy steel, heat treatment can bring about significant changes. Annealing, quenching, tempering, and normalizing are some of the most common heat treatment processes. Depending on the process, alloy steel can be made softer, harder, more ductile, or more wear-resistant.
  • Heat Treatment of Stainless Steel: Stainless steel is also subject to various heat treatment processes. Annealing, stress relieving, hardening, and tempering can alter its properties. For instance, annealing can improve its ductility and remove internal stresses, while hardening and tempering can improve its strength and toughness.

Table: Heat Treatment Effects on Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel

Heat Treatment Process Alloy Steel Effect Stainless Steel Effect
Annealing Increases softness and improves machinability Increases ductility, reduces hardness
Quenching Increases hardness, strength Usually not applicable (may cause cracking)
Tempering Reduces hardness, increases ductility Balances ductility and hardness
Normalizing Refines grain structure improve mechanical properties Homogenizes and refines grain structure


Zinc Alloy vs. Stainless Steel

Zinc alloy and stainless steel are two other materials often compared. Zinc alloy is a material made by combining zinc, the fourth most common metal, with other elements like aluminum, copper, and magnesium.

Zinc alloy is known for its excellent casting ability, cost-effectiveness, and decent strength and hardness. However, its corrosion resistance is not as good as stainless steel, and it’s generally not as strong or hard. That said, for applications like die-casting or for creating decorative elements, zinc alloy can be a good choice.

Table: Comparison of zinc alloy and stainless steel on various aspects

Features Zinc Alloy Stainless Steel
Mechanical Properties Good strength and hardness, but typically not as good as stainless steel Excellent strength and hardness
Corrosion Resistance Not as good as stainless steel Excellent, due to chromium content
Cost Generally less expensive More expensive
Applications Die-casting, decorative elements Variety of applications, including appliances, medical instruments, construction

Read more:


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Stainless Steel vs Alloy Steel: Choosing the Right Material

Selecting between alloy steel Vs stainless steel boils down to the specific requirements of the task at hand. For projects that require superior corrosion resistance, stainless steel is typically the go-to choice. However, for applications demanding higher strength and durability, particularly where corrosion resistance isn’t paramount, alloy steel proves to be more effective.

Remember that within both categories of steel, there are various grades and types with their own unique compositions and properties. Therefore, the selection should be based on a thorough understanding of these properties and how they align with the project’s demands.

Whether you’re working with alloy steel or stainless steel, understanding the properties of your materials is crucial. With Prolean’s professional services, you can confidently navigate the world of CNC machining and steel fabrication for all your project needs.



What are the key differences between alloy steel and stainless steel?

Alloy steel is a type of steel alloyed with various elements to improve its mechanical properties, while stainless steel is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass for corrosion resistance.

Is stainless steel more expensive than alloy steel?

Yes, stainless steel is typically more expensive than alloy steel due to the cost of the alloying elements, particularly chromium, and the process of manufacturing it.

Can both alloy steel and stainless steel be machined?

Yes, both alloy steel and stainless steel can be machined. However, due to the high hardness and toughness of some types of alloy and stainless steels, special machining techniques and tools may be required.

Does Prolean’s offer services for both Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel?

Absolutely! Prolean’s Steel CNC Machining & Sheet Metal Services handle both alloy steel and stainless steel, offering high precision and quality.

Which is stronger, alloy steel or stainless steel?

The strength of steel depends on the specific grade and heat treatment. However, in general, certain types of alloy steel are stronger than stainless steel.

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  1. Miguel Sousa

    It is obvious that stainless steel is go-to option for applications requiring superior corrosion resistance. But, i think post-processing of alloy steel can also achieve the level of corrosion resistance offered by stainless steel.

    • Dikendra

      Yes! post-processing of alloy steel can also achieve the level of corrosion resistance offered by stainless steel. But, other properties like strength and hardness differs in these steels significantly. It is nit only about corrosion resistance.

  2. Thomson

    We are the kitchenware business. We are developing new products and Which one is more suitable for kitchen utilities, Alloy steel or stainless steel.

    • Dikendra

      Stainless steel because of strength, corrosion resistance, durability, and easy clean.

  3. David T

    Well organized article on steel and alloys


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